Green and Safe Electrolytes for Multivalent-Ion (Mg, Ca, etc.) Batteries

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Green and Safe Electrolytes for Multivalent-Ion (Mg, Ca, etc.) Batteries


Princeton Docket # 15-3142/3143/16-3237


Prof. Craig Arnold’s laboratory has developed a green and halide free electrolyte system for multivalent-ion (Mg, Ca, and others) batteries capable of reversible metal electrodeposition that is superior to current chemistries that utilize Grignard reagents. The Arnold group employs green chemical routes that bypass the need for highly reactive and flammable reagents, has the potential to be halide free (halides can cause pitting and corrosion in stainless steel), utilizes inexpensive starting materials, is step-wise simple and easy to scale. Proof-of-concept electrolytes exhibit high conductivity (>6mScm-1), high coulomb efficiency (99.3%), achieved suitable oxidative stabilities (>3.5V vs Mg/Mg2+ on glassy carbon and gold), and are compatible with prototype cathode materials.  In the proof-of-concept Mg-ion system, there is no evidence of magnesium passivation over hundreds of plating and stripping cycles.



•       Multivalent ion batteries, including Magnesium-ion, Calcium-ion batteries

•       Electric vehicles, portable electronics

•       Magnesium coatings



•       Safe, facile, green synthesis route

•       Can be halide free (no corrosion)

•       High conductivity and voltage stability

•       Efficient, reversible magnesium electrodeposition

•       Compatibility with standard Mg-ion cathode materials



J. T. Herb; C. A. Nist-Lund; C. B. Arnold. A Fluorinated Alkoxyaluminate Electrolyte for Magnesium-Ion Batteries. ACS Energy Lett. 2016, 1, 1227–1232.


Intellectual Property & Development Status

US Patent application 15/084,862 entitled Electrolytes for Magnesium-Ion Batteries has been filed. The patent broadly encompasses other multivalent systems beyond Mg-ion systems. Princeton is seeking commercial partners for the further development and commercialization of this opportunity.




Craig B. Arnold is a Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University and the director the Princeton Institute for Science and Technology of Materials.  His research ranges from basic science to applied technology aimed at developing a deeper understanding of fundamental materials synthesis and processing with interests in energy storage, laser materials processing, and amorphous materials.  Previous awards include the ONR young investigator award and the NSF Career award and more recently, his work in high-speed variable focus optics won an R&D 100 award, the Laser Focus World-OSA technology innovation award, and the SPIE PRISM award for photonics innovation. 


Jake Herb was a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow in the Department of Chemistry at Princeton University with a background in electrochemistry and energy storage. His research focus was electrolytes for secondary magnesium-ion batteries, with interests in solid-state ionic conductors, ionic liquids, and nonaqueous electrolytes.



Linda Jan

Princeton University Office of Technology Licensing • (609) 258-3653•



Patent Information:
For Information, Contact:
Linda Jan
Technology Licensing Associate
Princeton University
Jake Herb
Craig Arnold
Carl Nist-Lund